Avaris

During the Middle Bronze age in the Second Intermediate Period the center of Egypt’s activity with the Levant was the river harbor town of Avaris. Its remains have been found in the archaeological site called Tell el Dab'a, located in the northeastern Nile Delta. The Austrian Archaeological Institute has been excavating at Tell el Dab'a since 1966 revealing a thousand years long stratigraphy and providing us with a wealth of information and data about the former Hyksos capital and its inhabitants. By geophysical surveying the area the archaeologists managed to understand what the paleo environment of Avaris was like: it was a large fortified citadel laying on a gezira island in the middle of the Nile river. The archaeologists measured its former harbor, its channels, the remains of its buildings and temples: they accurately and amazingly match the description of Atlantis as provided by Plato in "Critias". The author in his book "Atletenu" has compared the information provided by Plato with the archaeological records concluding that  Atlantis Island was no other than the gezira island of Avaris on the Nile river. His new translation of "Critias"is explained to show how Plato deliberately made lexical choices to descrive a fluvial environment not an oceanic environment: the old translations of Critias were all done between 1890 and 1920 and were biased by the assumption that Atlantis was an island in the Atlantic Ocean after the book of Ignatius Donnelly "Atlantis the Antediluvian World" in 1882 made such theory very popular. The author's new translation of "Critias" show that Plato was describing the geography and topography of Avaris in his dialogue.

map-avaris.jpg
Map of Avaris made by the archaeologist, photo by David Schmid licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 unported licence